When the universal support of Tier 1 is fundamentally in place for all students, it forms the base for implementing Tier 2 strategies. Tier 2 of the PBIS triangle model provides additional interventions to support that smaller percentage of students who do not sufficiently respond to Tier 1 strategies. Tier 2 practices involve analyzing office referral data to identify:
- Locations in the school or times of the day that are especially problematic, and then problem-solve simple solutions for those situations.
- Teachers or classrooms that may be in need of additional classroom management support.
- Small groups of students who are demonstrating similar behavior problems and provide them with more intensive instruction in social skills or replacement behaviors.
- Students who could benefit from daily monitoring, increased feedback, an adult mentor, a simple behavior plan in school, or a behavior plan coordinated between home and school.
- Students who need more academic or organizational support.
- Students who could benefit from alternatives to suspension for major violations.
Students at Tier 2 may be at risk for developing chronic problem behavior but do not need the high intensity interventions typical of individualized behavior plans at Tier 3. A small group with targeted interventions to meet their common needs is typical of Tier 2. Examples of small groups are: anger management, grief processing and possibly a newcomers club.
Critical features of Tier 2 interventions
Tier 2 interventions are implemented through a flexible and systematic process. The following are essential features of a Tier 2 system:
- Continuous availability to the students.
- Rapid access to the intervention (within 72 hours).
- Low effort by teachers with maximum benefits to student.
- Consistent with universal school- wide expectations.
- Implemented uniformly by all staff/ faculty in a school.
- Flexible intervention based on student need and assessment of behavior.
- Functional assessment of student’s behavior of concern.
- Adequate resources through administrative support and team meetings with time to implement and to follow up with review and revision.
- Student voluntarily participates.
- Continuous monitoring of student behavior for decision making.
- Intervention packages based on student need that “fits” the culture of the school so that students can be connected to these packaged interventions.